Young inflorescences and shoots may be eaten cooked, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore easy to chew. Details on possible control methods for I. cylindrica are available in the CABI Invasive Species Compendium. & Flory, L. (2015, January). Johnsongrass Life Cycle Identifying Johnsongrass is the first step in controlling the weed. biodiversity. Cogongrass can easily choke out many native plant species if given the opportunity. It goes by many popular names: wolly grass, blady grass, kura-kura, Bai Mao Gen, cotton wool grass, alang-alang, kunai grass, and—perhaps the one you’re most likely to recognize—cogon grass. cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (eds) (1999). - 4 ft. 0 in. Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999. Imperata cylindrica is a prolific seed producer with one plant capable of producing up to 3000 seeds. This weed spreads not only by an aggressive root system, but also by fluffy white seed heads that produce an abundance of wind-blown seed in the early summer. Impacts . Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. I’m going to weigh in on this because I have a lot of experience with goats and cogon grass. obs.) The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). Nonnative invasive plants of Cogongrass can be mowed, grazed, or burned, but it is difficult to control physically because it will propagate from stem fragments or the roots. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in appearance (Ladion, 2000). These are dispersed by wind over long distances. Millions of hectares of farmland are abandoned because of I. cylindrica grass in West and Central Africa each year. Imperata cylindrica is naturalised throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it has a limited distribution tropical America. The concentration of sugar varies greatly during the life cycle but is greatest when the cane is flowering, so this is when the harvest typically occurs. (1974). Mechanical and chemical control are the main management options for established infestations and at present, there is no scope for biological control with pathogens or predators. Dickens, R. and Moore, G.M. (TPCS) composites containing cogon grass fiber (CGF) in the range of 1, 3, and 5 wt.%. Cogon grass is a C 4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). control methods (pulling, cultivation, etc.) Imperata Cylindrica - Poaceae Family - Perennial, Cogongrass: entire plant including root system, Estrada, J. Has a weak and shallow root system.Closeup of leaf bladePhoto: Bruce Ackley, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.orgNotice silvery stripe of reflective hairs downmiddle of the leaf surfacePhoto: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org The plant belon gs to t he family Poaceae. Flowering Time:  Flowering time differs based on local climate. They are produced during early to mid-June. As Imperata cylindrica is so widespread this is unlikely to be possible in many instances. Mechanical Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. In cooler climates, mid-May to June. Pine decline is another growing problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the Southeast. Cogon grass grows 0.6–3 metres (2–10 feet) tall and has roots that can reach more than 1 metre (3.3 feet) long. Imperata cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis (Brazilian satintail). The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. In spring or summer, the plants produce fluffy white seed heads. Beauv) is commonly known as Cogon Grass and used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various u rinary disorders. This document provides a plan for cogongrass management in perennial grass pastures, as well … One This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa). Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. I. cylindrica has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders by the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group and It is on the Federal Noxious Weeds List in the USA. In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: eafrinet@africaonline.co.ke, Introduced, naturalised or invasive in East Africa. I. brasiliensis differs from I. cylindrica in terms of the number of stamens per flower; I. brasiliensis has one stamen whereas I. cylindrica has two. (2003). Flowers: Flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long. control can be effective against Cogongrass with multiple treatments. Yes, cogon grass should be eradicated. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989414000626, Global The leaf margins are finely toothed, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the base. Bogor, Indonesia: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, 167 pp. Cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds (Hubbard et al., 1944). )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). In its ornamental form it poses little threat to native flora, but it can easily become invasive if given the right conditions (excessive shade, water, well-drained soil). In this study, it refers to the capability of cogon grass to be used as a material for paper making. Retrieved from http://www.tsusinvasives.org/home/database/imperata-cylindrica, Salt Lake County Health Department Witt pers. GRAMA | Cogon Grass has also infested a large part of Alabama and portions of other southern states. ... Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) are two of the most common. Width: 2 ft. 0 in. Imperata cylindrica is invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania (A.B.R. Retrieved from http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php?CName=Cogongrass, Miller, J. Bermuda grass is also the most common grass … infestations (home gardens, etc.). This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. further treatments may be needed to kill the rhizomatous root mat. Deep plowing may be effective in the removal of cogongrass if the plow reaches up to 6 i… Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. Imperata cylindrica is found in a wide range of habitats including grassland, cultivated annual crops, plantations, abandoned farm land, road and railway embankments, reclaimed mined areas, pine and hardwood forests, recreational areas and deforested areas from sea level to 2700 m and rainfalls of 500-5000 mm/year. The long leaves feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals. and Miller, S.E. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. Although Imperata cylindrica can have leaf blades of up to 1.5 m tall in conditions of good soil moisture and fertility (Holm et al. The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. In this study, cogon grass was made as a material in paper making. Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and storage on germination of cogon grass. use. and Uganda (Lyons and Miller 1999). Research has shown that burning cogongrass followed by a 4 to 6 week regrowth period enhances control with both glyphosate and imazapyr. Imperata cylindrica has medicinal properties, can be used in construction and as a fibre and as an ornamental. Imperata cylindrica is a weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the humid tropics affected. As a seedling, Johnsongrass looks similar to corn, … It is native to southeast Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and agricultural land worldwide. Chemical Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration. The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. In cultivated ornamental versions, leaves are a deep red color. Imperata cylindrica (satintail). Itoh K ed, 1991. Need more information? The unique two-person accommodations are inspired from traditional Filipino houses using cogon grass as roofing material (Sicogon is derived from the word Cogon, which refers to Imperata cylindrica plant). Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188. Although it does not tolerate cool temperatures, it … It grows from 0.6-3 m tall. This lawn weed thrives in open areas, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides. The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. In Malaysia, I. cylindrica is most noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides and usually in full sun. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. Cogongrass When dry, Cogongrass poses a significant fire risk. Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. Cogongrass. Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. Life Cycle: Perennial Recommended Propagation Strategy: Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: Africa, Europe, Asia Dimensions: Height: 2 ft. 0 in. Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Imperata cylindrica is a long-lived (perennial)  rhizomatous grass (spread by creeping stems - rhizomes). However, they aren’t going to clean up an infested field. Life Cycles of Rice Field Weeds and their Management in Malaysia. Non Discrimination | It is very tolerant of soil type and of wide variations in soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions. The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. Cogongrass: Cogon Grass: Satintail: Blood Grass: Also sold as: Red Baron: General Plant Information ; Plant Habit: Grass/Grass-like: Life cycle: Perennial: Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Partial Shade: Water Preferences: Mesic Dry Mesic Dry: Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 5a -28.9 °C (-20 °F) to … Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai), Pantropical - almost certainly found in all countries in the humid tropics. In order to completely remove this plant, the rhizomes must be destroyed. leaf sheath with hairs (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plant base and rhizomes (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), seed heads (whitish plumes) and flower heads (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), infestation (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plants (Photo: Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org), flowering (Photo: Nancy Loewenstein, Auburn University, Bugwood.org). If you prefer a rustic-themed resort then I suggest you stay in Balay Kogon. Species profile: Imperata cylindrica. Its erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes Imperata cylindrica grass distinct from most other weeds. Today, cogon grass has been found in over 73 countries (MacDonald, 2004). In natural versions, leaves are light green. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. Roots are up to 1.2 m deep, but 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil. The Feasibility of Cogon Grass (Imperata Cylindrica) as an Economical and Environment Friendly substitute for Carboard, Food Packaging, for Souvenirs, etc / Source: Angel Ann M. Concepcion Justine Ace York C. Barnardo / Dept of Science and Technology (15) Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) roots as a potent agent in lowering uric acid / Google Doc Imperata The leaves are typically light green with a thin, white stripe, but can turn reddish-brown after a frost or freeze. Ivens GW, 1975. (Imperata cylindrica) invasions in the US: Mechanisms, impacts, and threats to Lyons, E.E. several species of fungi are currently under investigation for possible future Imperata cylindrica is the most morphologically variable species in … For this year, it is a little too late, but is possible if we do not have a frost event. Disclaimer | IRRI/NRI (1996). Seeds: Cogongrass produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal. Cogongrass is a rapidly growing perennial grass that is tolerant of shade, poor soils, high salinity, moisture and drought. CABI Invasive Species Compendium online data sheet. Imperata arundinacea Cirollo; Lagurus cylindricusL. Paper. Invasive Species Database. - 4 ft. 0 in. Life Cycle. It also spreads by rhizomes (root-like stems) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport. In southern climates, flowering occurs intermittently year-round. (2010, August 21). It is also thought to negatively impact upon biodiversity as it is an inferior forage grass. treatment with Glyphosate herbicides can control leaf growth, but up to 2 Phone: (385) 468-4100, TTY | Bright green grass has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade; grows up to 2 ft. tall. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… are effective only on small General Information   This hardy grass can grow from 2 feet to 10 feet tall, with leaves about 2 cm wide at the base, tapering off to sharp points. We have a fact sheet available that can be found here. Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. southern forests. Privacy Statement |. Polembang, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute. Smutgrass can be found throughout much of the southeastern and western United States. and Eupatorium odoratum L. Weed Research Project R 2552, 1971-1973. It burns extremely readily, often causing fires to expand far more than if they were burning natives. 1977). First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. Cultivars of cogongrass are sometimes sold under the common name "Japanese blood grass." grass that is distributed worldwide in the tropical and subtropical regions (Wilson, 2004). Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with an off-center prominent white midrib (Figure 2). Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai) Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic.. Biological Control of Cogongrass: Progress and Perspectives James P. Cuda1, William A. Overholt2, and Purnama Hidayat3 1Entomology & Nematology Dept., Gainesville, FL 2Retired, Biological Control Research & Containment Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL 3Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, Indonesia IFAS-FTGA Great CEU Roundup, McCarty GOO1, 25 July 2018 ICRAF (1999). Accessed March 2011. The main vein is a lighter colour than the rest of the leaf and tends to be nearer to one side of the leaf. Africa ) an integrated management approach are introduced below 2552, 1971-1973 BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA (... 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